Il Nitisinone è stato approvato per il trattamento di pazienti adulti con Alcaptonuria.

In seguito a uno studio internazionale che ne ha dimostrato l’efficacia nel rallentare la progressione della malattia, nitisinone è stato recentemente approvato per il trattamento di pazienti adulti con alcaptonuria. Gli studi futuri stabiliranno la dose minima necessaria e il momento più opportuno per avviare la terapia. 


Resta aggiornato tramite gli ultimi studi scientifici sul Nitisinone

Comparing nitisinone 2 mg and 10 mg in the treatment of alkaptonuria - An approach using statistical modelling

Lakshminarayan R Ranganath et al.

Background: Outcomes from studies employing nitisinone 10 mg and 2 mg in alkaptonuria were compared. Patients and methods: Sixty-nine patients in each of the nitisinone (10 mg daily) and controls of suitability of nitisinone in alkaptonuria 2 (SONIA 2), as well as 37 and 23 in nitisinone (2 mg daily) and control cohorts at the National Alkaptonuria Centre (NAC), respectively, were followed up for 4 years. Severity of alkaptonuria (AKU) was assessed by the AKU Severity Score Index (AKUSSI). 24-h urine homogentisic acid (uHGA24), serum HGA (sHGA), serum tyrosine (sTYR) and serum nitisinone (sNIT) were also analysed at each time point. Dietetic support was used in the NAC, but not in SONIA 2. Safety outcomes were also compared. All statistical analyses were post hoc.

Results: The slope of the AKUSSI was 0.55, 0.19, 0.30, and 0.06 per month in the control NAC, nitisinone NAC, control SONIA 2, and nitisinone SONIA 2 cohorts, respectively. The intersection of the slopes on the x-axis was 132, 411, 295, and  1460 months, respectively. The control and nitisinone slope comparisons were statistically significant both in the NAC (p < 0.001) and the SONIA 2 (p < 0.001). Corneal keratopathy occurred in 3 and 10 patients in the NAC and SONIA 2, respectively.

Discussion: The nitisinone 10 mg dose decreased disease progression more than the 2 mg dose although the incidence of corneal keratopathy was 14.5% and 4.9%, respectively.

Conclusion: Nitisinone 10 mg decreased urine and serum HGA, increased serum tyrosine, and decreased disease progression more than 2 mg. Low-protein dietetic support may be needed to mitigate tyrosinaemia following nitisinone.

Efficacy and safety of once-daily nitisinone for patients with alkaptonuria (SONIA 2): an international, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial

Lakshminarayan R Ranganath et al.

Background: Alkaptonuria is a rare, genetic, multisystem disease characterised by the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). No HGA-lowering therapy has been approved to date. The aim of SONIA 2 was to investigate the efficacy and safety of once-daily nitisinone for reducing HGA excretion in patients with alkaptonuria and to evaluate whether nitisinone has a clinical benefit.

Methods: SONIA 2 was a 4-year, open-label, evaluator-blind, randomised, no treatment controlled, parallel-group study done at three sites in the UK, France, and Slovakia. Patients aged 25 years or older with confirmed alkaptonuria and any clinical disease manifestations were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral nitisinone 10 mg daily or no treatment. Patients could not be masked to treatment due to colour changes in the urine, but the study was evaluator-blinded as far as possible. The primary endpoint was daily urinary HGA excretion (u-HGA24) after 12 months. Clinical evaluation Alkaptonuria Severity Score Index (cAKUSSI) score was assessed at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. Efficacy variables were analysed in all randomly assigned patients with a valid u-HGA24 measurement at baseline. Safety variables were analysed in all randomly assigned patients. The study was registered at (NCT01916382).

Findings: Between May 7, 2014, and Feb 16, 2015, 139 patients were screened, of whom 138 were included in the study, with 69 patients randomly assigned to each group. 55 patients in the nitisinone group and 53 in the control group completed the study. u-HGA24 at 12 months was significantly decreased by 99·7% in the nitisinone group compared with the control group (adjusted geometric mean ratio of nitisinone/control 0·003 [95% CI 0·003 to 0·004], p<0·0001). At 48 months, the increase in cAKUSSI score from baseline was significantly lower in the nitisinone group compared with the control group (adjusted mean difference –8·6 points [–16·0 to –1·2], p=0·023). 400 adverse events occurred in 59 (86%) patients in the nitisinone group and 284 events occurred in 57 (83%) patients in the control group. No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Nitisinone 10 mg daily was well tolerated and effective in reducing urinary excretion of HGA. Nitisinone decreased ochronosis and improved clinical signs, indicating a slower disease progression.

Efficacy of Phenylalanine- and Tyrosine- Restricted Diet in Alkaptonuria Patients on Nitisinone Treatment: Case Series and Review of Literature

Pelin Teke Kisa et al.

Introduction: Nitisinone used in alkaptonuria (AKU) can result in keratopathy due to strongly increased tyrosine levels.

Methods: This study aimed to investigate nutritional status and changes in plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine and urinary homogentisic acid (u-HGA) levels in 8 adult AKU patients (mean age, 56.3 ± 4.7 years) who were on tyrosine/ phenylalanine-restricted diet together with 2 mg/day nitisinone.

Results: The treatment period was 23.4 ± 6.9 months. Daily dietary protein intake was restricted to 0.8–1.0 g/kg/ day. Daily tyrosine intake was restricted to 260–450 mg/day for females and 330–550 mg/day for males. Tyrosine/phenylalanine- free amino acid supplements accounted for an average of 56.1% of daily protein intake. The following assessments were performed: anthropometric and plasma tyrosine level measurements every 2 months; ophthalmological examination every 6 months, and nutritional laboratory analyses and measurements of plasma amino acids and u- HGA once in a year. It was targeted to keep the plasma tyrosine level <500 μmol/L. The plasma tyrosine level was <100 μmol/L before the treatment in all patients and around a mean of 582.5 ± 194.8 μmol/L during the treatment. The diet was rearranged if a plasma tyrosine level of >700 μmol/L was detected. The u-HGA level before and after the 1st year of treatment was 1,429.3 ± 1,073.4 mmol/mol creatinine and 33.6 ± 9.5 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. None of the patients developed keratopathy or experienced weight loss and protein or micronutrient deficiency. Conclusion: AKU patients should receive tyrosine/phenylalanine-restricted diet for reducing plasma tyrosine level to the safe range. Tyrosine/phenylalanine-free amino acid supplements can be safely used to enhance dietary compliance. Keratopathy and nutrient deficiency should be frequently monitored.

Effects of a protein-restricted diet on body weight and serum tyrosine concentrations in patients with alkaptonuria

Birgitta Olsson et al.

In an open-label, controlled study of nitisinone in alkaptonuria (SONIA 2), patients were advised to lower dietary protein intake to reduce serum tyrosine (s-Tyr) levels and the risk of keratopathy. A body weight increase was observed in the nitisinone-treated patients but not in the control group. To investigate the effectiveness and consequence of protein restriction in patients with alkaptonuria, a post-hoc analysis of SONIA 2 was performed. One hundred and thirty-eight patients were randomised (nitisinone: n = 69, controls: n = 69). Comparison of baseline and Month 12 data on 24-h urinary excretion of HGA (u-HGA24) and urea (u-urea24, used as an approximate protein intake measure), tyrosine and body weight were performed using paired t tests. Comparisons of data between groups were made using 2-sample t tests. We found that u-urea24 decreased more in nitisinone-treated than controls. The study centre with lowest average s-Tyr and u-urea24 (nitisinone arm) at Month 12 also had lowest keratopathy incidence (3.1%), while the centre with highest values showed the highest (14.6%). S-Tyr was generally high in those with keratopathy, but those without keratopathy had similar elevated values. A similar pattern across centres was seen for body weight changes, with a statistically significant weight increase in nitisinone-treated patients at centres with lower u-urea24 values. Therefore, in nitisinone-treated patients, protein restriction led to increased body weight but may also have lowered the risk of developing keratopathies. If introduced, a protein-restricted diet should be supervised by a dietician and, when appropriate, include amino acid supplements deficient in tyrosine and phenylalanine, to avoid malnutrition and undesired weight increase.